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Best Geometry Sets 2018 – [Buyer’s Guide]Last Updated December 1, 2018
Best Geometry Sets of 2018
I have taken the initiative to educate you on the top three best geometry sets that you can buy this year. Simply review and buy them. If you’re scouring the market for the best geometry sets, you’d better have the right info before spending your money. Here, I will review 3 of the best geometry sets of 2018, and we will also discuss the things to consider when looking to purchase one. I hope you will make an informed decision after going through each of them.
Test Results and Ratings
Why did this geometry sets win the first place?
I am very happy with the purchase. It is definitely worth its money. The product is top-notch! The product is very strong. Its material is stable and doesn’t crack. I don’t know anything about other models from this brand, but I am fully satisfied with this product. The rear part fits perfectly! It is mounted really tight and reliable.
Why did this geometry sets come in second place?
I really liked it. It is amazing in every aspect. It did even exceed my expectations for a bit, considering the affordable price. Seems that the material is good. It has a very beautiful color but I don’t really like the texture. I like this product. For such a low price, I didn’t even hope it to be any better. It’s decently made. The design quality is top notch and the color is nice.
№3 – Maped Geometry Set
Why did this geometry sets take third place?
A very convenient model. It is affordable and made of high-quality materials. I liked the design. We’ve been using it for 2 months and it still looks like brand new. It is inconvenient to use due to the size. I am going to get something different next time. It doesn’t squeaks nor bents. Looks great in my apartment.
Geometry Sets Buyer’s Guide
Canyon’s Grand Canyon cross-country hardtail
Cross-country bikes tend to use larger diameter 29in wheels — so are often referred to as 29ers — combined with lightly treaded, low-volume and fast-rolling tyres for maximum speed, though some brands offer them with 650b wheels — also called 27.5in.
They tend to use steeper head angles combined with longer stems and narrower bars for quick reacting handling and to place the rider into an efficient pedalling position.
The downside of this type of geometry is that it can make them harder to control on steeper descents, especially when combined with shorter-travel suspension and skinnier tyres.
Cheaper cross-country bikes will use alloy frames, but carbon is the default choice for top-end race bikes — although exotic materials such as titanium are sometimes seen. They tend to have a very wide range of gears to allow steep climbing as well as a high top speed.
Buy one if: you like pushing your heart rate as high as it’ll go and riding for hours on end.
Entry: £750 (hardtail), £1,000 (full suspension)
Good: £1,500 (hardtail), £2,500 (full suspension)
Brilliant: £2,500 (hardtail), £3,500 (full suspension)
This is the most popular style of bike because it can be used for pretty much anything.
Trail bikes have more relaxed angles to give greater confidence when descending and kit that’s designed to deal with more punishment. They use shorter stems and wider handlebars to help improve control at speed, while tyres will have more aggressive tread.
Enduro is a racing format in which the descents are timed, but you still have to pedal yourself around the course. That means that these bikes are designed to perform exceptionally well down steep and difficult trails but are still light and efficient enough to pedal back to the top.
The Mondraker Dune Carbon XR is an excellent — and expensive — modern enduro machine
Enduro bikes tend to have more travel than ‘normal’ trail bikes, and are almost exclusively full suspension. Most use around 160-170mm of travel at either end, paired to tough wheels and reinforced tyres. The suspension units they use are still air-sprung but tend to be heavier duty with a wide range of damping adjustments to tune their downhill performance.
Some have remotes that allow you to change the bike’s geometry and travel between a downhill and uphill mode. Many have just one chainring and a device to prevent the chain falling off paired to a wide range of gears at the back. Enduro bikes are also called ‘all mountain’ bikes as they’re ideal for riding in mountainous and technical terrain.
Commencal’s Supreme DH Race is a World Cup-ready downhill racer
As the name suggests, these bikes are about doing one thing; going down steep and technical tracks very, very quickly.
They have around 200mm of travel at either end, often using coil sprung suspension that’s optimised for pure traction and support, rather than pedalling ability.
To put up with the huge forces the bikes are put under, the forks have legs that extend above the head tube and are then braced together, known as a ‘double-crown’ or ‘triple-clamp’ fork. Again, aluminium is the choice for cheaper bikes, while pro-level machinery will be carbon.
Electric mountain bike
The Scott E-Genius 7Plus is an example of a modern electric mountain bike
Motorised mountain bikes are becoming very popular indeed, and it’s now possible to find electric mountain bikes in pretty much all of the disciplines listed above.
These bikes incorporate a motor and battery into their design and work by assisting the pedalling that a rider delivers. The power on offer is usually adjusted via a control unit at the bike’s handlebar.
These bikes are significantly heavier than their non-motorised equivalents but can make light work of climbing up the steepest of gradients. Don’t go thinking riding an e-bike is a piece of cake though, these can deliver a workout that many pros use to train with.
Dirt jump bikes
Dirt jump mountain bikes use tiny frames and often 24in or 26in wheels
As the name suggests, these are meant for hitting jumps or pump tracks.
They use tough frames that are easy to move about in the air, short-travel forks and often only have one gear for simplicity.
Singlespeed mountain bikes
Singlespeed bikes are few and far between, but those who like them tend to really like them
Popular with masochists, these bikes only have one gear.
The lack of moving parts means they’re simple to maintain and many people like to run them through the winter months to prevent damaging another bike.
They can be very cheap but many are also expensive, exotic bikes built by niche custom framebuilders. They’re usually hardtails or fully rigid.
Mid travel bikes don’t require the hard-hitting suspension of enduro or downhill bikes but they still need to be controlled and composed by excellent damping.
Travel will range from 1– 150mm on a trail bike so single crown forks will be the order of the day. A lot of modern bikes are run with asymmetrical travel where the forks have greater travel than the frame and shock. The heavy duty, wide forks of enduro bikes will be shed at this level and instead you’ll get trail forks with slimmer stanchions and less travel.
There are different versions of forks for different wheel sizes and amounts of travel but as long as the internals are the same you won’t notice significant performance variation.
Once again you won’t be hauling around an ultra-hard hitting shock on your trail bike. It’s very uncommon to see piggyback reservoir simply because the progression isn’t needed (although if you find yourself needing a bit more you can still use volume reducing tokens), instead you’ll have a traditional style shock to save weight. The shock is most likely to be air, not coil, as it is lighter and more adjustable.
Once again Fox and Rockshox rule the roost but there are competent offerings from X-Fusion, Marzocchi, Bos and Manitou. You’re looking for something with a good range of adjustment and some way to firm it up for long climbs. Most shocks will have a tune that is appropriate to the frame’s design – all part of a thorough design and development process that adds up to a high performance bike.
Trail bikes have the biggest variety of wheels on offer for any bike category. A few years ago it seemed like 650b had the market sewn up but the introduction of Boost (and now Super Boost Plus) hub spacing has made 29ers viable again. 29ers offer superior ground covering abilities and float over small holes while 27.wheels offer better maneuverability, but don’t be fooled into thinking 29ers are the ‘wagon wheels’ they’re often derided as, you can still get a flickable bike with big wheels
There’s also the emerging Plus bike market that fits large volume tyres up to three inches wide on wheels with 27.inch diameter. At the moment Plus bikes are being pushed towards the beginner and intermediate market for their superior grip and cushioning, but when the tyre tech starts to become more refined we could see them become more ubiquitous.
Tyres will be a bit lighter than on an enduro bike but still durable enough to handle the rigours of all day riding. They will probably also be a bit narrower (maxing out at about 2.inches) so that they aren’t too draggy. An aggressive tread pattern up front with a faster rolling lower profile tread at the rear is a good set up once conditions dry up and speeds increase. The Maxxis High Roller 2, Schwalbe Magic Mary and Rock Razor are all recommendations from us here at Dirt.
Lightweight two or four piston hydraulic disc brakes are standard kit on a modern trail bike – reliable, powerful and with good controllable modulation. Rotors sizes will be 180mm with maybe a larger size up front. Shimano, Hope and SRAM are favourites but we’ve just found favour with the new MTfrom Magura.
It’s still a toss up between 1x and 2x drivetrains for trail bikes. Top end bikes are starting to move away from 2x but a lot of consumers still like having the security of the extra low gears for getting up climbs easier.
You will likely have a ten or 1speed cassette at the back, however the recently released SRAM Eagle has introduced 1speed for the first time.
This won’t be a universally popular statement but if you’re riding a trail bike you really should fit a dropper post. Yes, people used to cope just fine without them, but when you’ve ridden one you won’t ever be tempted to go back. They don’t have to break the bank, with the Orba Digit starting at £60, but if you really want to push the boat out the RockShox Reverb Stealth takes some beating.
Pedals are very much a personal choice here. Objectively being clipped in will give you a mechanical advantage if you’re on a long ride, simply because you’ll have better pedalling efficiency. But if you don’t get on with them then there’s no point in forcing yourself to ride them.
All pedals need well sealed reliable bearings and a good build quality to put up with plenty of knocks and abuse and will need to work well with your footwear choice. Budget for £60 upwards for a pair of pedals – check out the Dirt 100 for our choices.
You’d have a hard time playing a game of chess without any chessmen. That’s why every chess set comes with a set of chess pieces. Most of them are modelled after the traditional Staunton pattern, which is the most widely recognized style for chess pieces and also the only one accepted in tournament play. If you prefer something more whimsical, though, there are unique Chess Sets out there with themed chess pieces.
Black & White Wood And Metal Chess Set
This modern chess set is one of the most popular chess sets for sale in 2017, due in large part to its colorful and unique design. This Wood & Metal Chess Set features black, white, silver, and gold tones mixed and matched freely to create a cool aesthetic that puts a modern spin on the more traditional chess piece patterns it uses. And, for a set that’s such a statement piece, it’s surprisingly affordable!
Burnt Zagreb ’5Series Chess Set.
The chess box is lined with green billiard cloth to keep your pieces protected. It has a divided interior with two separate compartments, brass quadrant hinges, and a lock and key. The House of Staunton logo is laser engraved onto the lid of the chess box.
Aluminum was the most popular choice in the 1980s and 1990s, replacing steel as the new, lighter standard in road bike material.
These frames are often actually aluminum alloy – a mixture of aluminum and another component, such as magnesium or zinc – this allows them to be made stronger.
Aluminum alloy frames are generally lighter than steel, heavier than carbon, and in most cases have a slightly harsher ride feel than both. More expensive aluminum bikes will have a carbon fork; this lowers the weight on the front end of the bike and dampens out road buzz that can be transmitted through the handlebars on an alloy fork.
The racer’s choice – carbon is most prominent in the pro peloton because it’s lighter than aluminum, as well as being strong and comfortable to ride.
Power to weight ration explained
Carbon is not a metal – it’s made from strands of carbon, which are bonded together with resin and formed using a single mould.
Brands will often refer to ‘carbon modulus’ – this is a measurement of stiffness. Ideally, you’d want high modulus carbon in areas where stiffness is desirable – the bottom bracket particularly, and lower modulus carbon in seat stays and the top tube since this will make for a more comfortable ride.
Built bikes vary in price depending upon the components. Generally, a carbon bike will be lighter than alloy. However, remember that a carbon frame with cheaper components could be heavier than an aluminum frame with top of the range components, so don’t assume it’s light just because you see the ‘C’ word.
Carbon is also more susceptible to damage – so though they’re light and the ride quality is smooth and blissful, they don’t make the most practical winter bikes. One crash doesn’t spell the end for the frame, but it is easier to crack carbon than it is to dent aluminum.
Steel is the old school material of choice. In most cases, it’s considered fairly heavy, though top of the range steel is butted – meaning tubing is made thinner where possible – saving a great deal of weight. Steel frames are often hand crafted by artisans.
The plus side in steel is that it’s generally very smooth to ride – due to the way the material has a spring to it and flexes with the riders movement – and it lasts, basically, forever.
Road Bike Groupsets
It’s not just the frame that contributes to the weight of a bike – so does everything else on it, and the groupset plays a large role.
This comprises of chainrings, cranks, cassette, derailleurs, chain, gear levers, bottom bracket and brakes.
In many cases, when building a bike brands will use a mixture of components – for example opting for Shimano 10cassette, chain and chainrings, and Tektro brake calipers. This usually allows them to save money on the overall package, but the cheaper parts are often those you will find yourself upgrading first. So ideally look for a full matching groupset.
The most common groupsets are Shimano or SRAM, with Campagnalo featuring on a smaller number of bikes. Each requires a different movement to shift gears, and the ‘best’ is down to personal preference.
In terms of value – Shimano’s entry level groupset is Claris, followed by Sora, Tiagra, 105, Ultegta, then Dura Ace. SRAM starts with Apex, followed by Rival, Force, and SRAM Red.
The higher up the scale you go, the more expensive the bike gets – but with it you get lighter weight, crisper shifting and longevity – mainly due to you not wanting to upgrade rather than the components actually lasting longer.
All groupsets will shift when you ask them (provided you maintain your bike) – the more expensive sets will just be sharper and quicker to do so. If pootling through country lanes is you plan, you’ll probably be more than happy with an entry level groupset, but if you want to ride fast, fire round corners, and always be in the optimum gear to chase down the pack, you’ll be looking down the Dura Ace end.
Road bike brakes
With the new addition of many disc braked road bikes on the market, another question enters the equation – discs or rim brakes?
Discs offer fast stopping – even in the rain. They also don’t use the rim, which means that winter grit and grime doesn’t get caught between rim and braking surface. Though they do add weight, disc brakes also allow the rims to be lighter as these don’t need to be reinforced for braking.
Generally, the wet weather braking means that disc braked road bikes are better for people who want to ride in any weather conditions, and perhaps don’t hold low weight as their number one concern.
Bikes with caliper brakes are generally lighter. The brakes are a little easier to maintain, and of course if you want to race in any British Cycling (UCI governed) event, you can’t have disc brakes as they currently aren’t considered safe – due to the quicker speed at which they stop a rider in a peloton.
This is the point at which the car ‘takes its set’. This is an easy way to put something that is a complex interrelation of slip angles and weight transfer. It is basically the point at which the car assumes the attitude it will remain at until the exit phase starts. The transition phase is when the driver is not adding any more turning to the steering wheel and (usually) is transitioning from brakes to throttle. At this point the car will be at maximum lateral g and will be transferring weight from front to back as the brakes are released and the throttle applied.
If it is corner-entry over-steer, the cause could be brake balance or poor gear-shifting. If it is transition over-steer it could be overly hard dampers, bump-steer, roll-bars, spring rates or a simple ‘pop-off’ the brakes by the driver. If it is corner-exit over-steer it could be over-heavy spring rates or roll-bars or a leaden right foot.So if you’re the engineer any changes you make will be as likely to make things worse as better if you don’t know where the car is doing what it is doing.
All of this looks very daunting and complicated if you don’t know one end of a spanner from the other, but it isn’t that tricky. A lot of variables are taken out of the equation if you get Sheane Cars in Co. Wicklow to do a basic set-up on the car. They’ll set camber, caster, toe, Ackermann, bump-steer, roll-centres and spring rates. That leaves the less mechanically-minded driver to play with dampers, roll-bars and brake balance.
No it’s not.
Let’s be clear; the same weight transfer will occur regardless of your damper settings. Even if you throw them away and just use bare springs the weight transfer will happen. Even if you take the springs out and replace them with box-section, the weight transfer will happen. All dampers can do is control the speed at which it happens. And, once again; the stiffer they are, the faster it happens.
Now, let’s look at their partners in crime; the anti-roll bars.
Anti-roll bars control where the transferred weight goes. Let’s imagine your car has no front anti-roll bar and a rear anti-roll bar made from inch thick Titanium bar. When your car turns into a corner it is going to transfer weight from the inside to the outside. The titanium girder is going to resist that transfer. In doing so, it is going to put all the weight onto the outside rear tyre. That tyre is a) going to hate you, and b) it is very quickly going to have more force applied to it than it has grip to cling on and it is going to slide and you will have an over-steering car. (You’re also going to have a disproportionately light inside rear tyre, but that gets very technical and needs a calculator, so let’s ignore it. It doesn’t matter much anyway if the relationship between anti-roll bars and springs is well planned. Remember when we said everything is connected earlier?? You need to take into account what your upgrade will affect on the other areas on the car; simply upgrading something like your springs is not going to make a huge difference if the roll bar is too soft or too hard. Sure it might feel quicker but you’re not getting the full potential out of your springs (and more to the point your money!).
Now let’s say you unbolt the titanium girder and attach it to the front. Now all the weight will be transferred onto the outside front tyre and it will get quickly overwhelmed and your car will slide at the front. And you have under-steer.
So here’s the summary. A stiffer bar will make the end it’s on slide. A softer bar will let it grip better. (At this point engineers are getting dizzy with all the assumptions that makes, but it’s accurate enough the purpose of this.)
So now let’s put it all together. You have a car that can behave on the straights and can brake well. Now you need to do some analysis;
Figure out what are the most important corners on the circuit (see above) and assess what the car is doing in each phase of them. You need to be pushing to do this. Driving like Miss Daisy will tell you nothing. The car has to be on the limit before you get a decent assessment. Now come in off the circuit and address what the car was doing in those corners and in which phase it was doing it.
Okay, this is the tricky bit. But here are some decent rules of thumb.
2) If you have transitional over-steer, in other words as you come off the brake and move to the throttle, you either have too stiff rear dampers or you are popping off the brake. If the former, change ‘em. If the latter, repeat the mantra ‘a smooth driver is a fast driver’ 500 times and take a cold shower.
3) If you have corner exit over-steer, in other words, the car has taken a set, you’re feeding it throttle and the back is coming around on you then the rear anti-roll bar is too hard or the front is too soft.
Corner entry under-steer usually means front dampers are too stiff. But it’s a complex one. And it’s also very unusual. Drivers mouth on all the time about ‘turn-in’ but in reality it’s unusual to find any car with a Sheane Cars set up on it that has its front tyres fully loaded going into a turn and wants to wash out away from the apex. It likely means a bad combination of toe, caster, camber and Ackermann angles. Transitional under-steer is either of two things; either the driver is leaping on the throttle in the middle of a horrible line and trying to drive the car like a snow-plough or it means the car is not rotating at transition. (Rotation is a fascinating thing that results from the overlap of weight transfer, vehicle yaw angle and tyre slip angle. All very interesting. And technical. And not for here, engineers put away your calculators. Suffice it to say it feels lovely and is what all race cars live to do.) The quick and dirty version of a car ‘not rotating’ means the driver comes off the brakes onto the throttle and the car responds like a blancmange. If that’s what you are feeling, then your dampers are too soft all around. Corner exit under-steer is a terrible thing that brings shame on your family. It is the result of a front anti-roll bar that is too stiff or a rear that is too soft. It is terrible. Rid your car of it at all costs. A car that is exiting a corner should (in general) reach the outside curb with its rear outside wheel, not its front outside wheel. Not like the Dukes of Hazzard, but rotated enough that the rear is making it to the curb. (And yes, we know you don’t see it in FBut you also don’t see a thousand kilos of downforce, and the resulting aerodynamic implications in most racing classes or track day cars.)
It’s not set in stone.
This can be yours >>> Size matters: why we’re all riding bikes that are too small
If your current bike is only a degree or two away from its modern rivals, it can be brought up to speed. You can also lengthen and lower your bike by 5-20mm in various ways too.
Longer travel fork
This is not something that we wholeheartedly recommend. Sure, running a longer travel fork results in a slacker head angle (approximately -1° for every 20mm of extra travel) but it also results in a slacker seat angle and, crucially, a higher BB.
The comparison chart above shows many top folding bikes on the market. We have reviewed most of them and they are really excellent options. You can read our review for more details and ratings on some important criteria. Those reviews will absolutely help you make the appropriate buying decision.
If it is still too difficult to find out the perfect folding bike, you can check out our top picks:
There are two main numbers to consider when looking at MTB handlebar geometry: rise and sweep.
Backsweep refers to the angle at which the bars swoop toward the back of the bike. This angle can range from 0° for a completely straight bar to 45° for a specialty bar like the Jones H-Bar. Again, sweep comes down to rider comfort and preference ahead of any other considerations like performance.
These days, mountain bike handlebars are made from either aluminum alloy, titanium, or carbon fiber. Aluminum bars are generally the least expensive but are also the heaviest. Titanium bars can be more expensive than carbon, and are generally heavier too.
Most mountain bikes utilize a standard straight bar but these days, mountain bikers are experimenting with other shapes like the Jones H-Bar, road-style drop bars, the Titec J-Bar, and BMX-style riser bars. Many of these choices are based on extreme use cases like bikepacking and ultra-endurance riding where riders need to utilize multiple hand positions throughout the ride to avoid fatigue. In general, these types of bars trade comfort over trail handling.
How to Choose the Best Mountain Bike Helmet
Tips to get started
Work out exactly what you need: Shooting a basic recurve bow, like they use in the Olympics, requires a riser, limbs, string, rest, button, sight, stabilisation and other accessories.
Plan a budget for what you want to spend on the kit. (Prepare to ignore it when you arrive in the shop and something catches your eye.)
The best time to buy a first bow is a short while after completing a beginners course. You will have perfected your basic form and a coach can assess more accurately what kind of specifications you need for your equipment.
Change is the enemy of a consistent archer. Once you buy your own bow, you may find it takes a while to get used to it, so do not expect your scores to increase suddenly! (Although, it’s not unknown for people to make vast improvements straight away.)
Before you choose your bow, keep in mind your draw length and how that affects the equipment. The overall height of the recurve bow (in inches) should be roughly your draw length plus 40in. Standard setups usually range from 66in-72in, although there is more variety for youth archers.
This is the part of the bow you will want to invest the most into. The riser is the foundation from which the rest of the bow is built, and will last you for years to come.
Your budget will dictate the kind of risers you will be looking at – but if you are able to visit a shop in person, pick up and hold as many as you can, feel the weight and balance in your hand. Many shops will have a range and let you test risers out.
The riser can be made from lots of different materials, such as wood (the more traditional choice), metal or carbon. Each have their own benefits and pitfalls.
Wooden and carbon risers are both very light, needing extra stabilisation to balance, while aluminium risers are extremely rugged. Wooden bows have a limited choice, and are usually the choice of those preferring to shoot traditionally, while metal and carbon risers take advantage of modern technologies.
Typical attributes of a good riser are good balance, good hand placement, straightness (a twisted riser is not a good riser) and geometry – as its shape and weight will affect how the limbs bend, how the bow reacts when it’s shot and how well it aims.
For beginners, growth and development of the archer is an important point to consider in selection of limbs. Most available on the market fit the ILF system (fitting the green riser on the right, below), which works cross-brand, with exceptions including screw-in and the newer Hoyt Formula fitting.
You are likely to outgrow your first set of limbs within a few months – therefore, one common recommendation is to buy limbs on the cheaper end of the market. This means that once you outgrow the limb, you can get a new pair without breaking the bank, and won’t be left with a top-of-the-range piece of kit you’ll need to sell.
For your first set of limbs, choose a poundage (that’s the weight of the limb when you pull it back) that is similar or slightly heavier than used during your previous shooting. Most adults will use poundage ranging from 18-32.
Each brand and range of limbs will offer a different feel when shot. Some are snappy, some are soft – some use the latest in fibreglass or carbon fibre technology, some are layered with foam and many, still, use wooden cores, often bamboo. Limb choice is a very personal thing.
Many shops offer a rental scheme for beginner limbs, which is an excellent option.
Strings come in various lengths, materials and thicknesses to fit your bow. Ensure that the string is the right length. Thicker strings (those with more strands), which are necessary for higher poundages, tend to be a little slower but may fit your chosen arrow nocks better.
Use a tied nocking point, if you can, rather than brass – as this will prolong the life of both string and finger tab.
Of the many colours available, top archers often use the simple white. In hot weather, the colour reflects – and won’t affect the string much. (Of course, if the string is properly stretched when made, you’re unlikely to see much change in it, anyway.)
Your sight should be the second-most invested-in piece of kit you buy. Quality is definitely something you pay for in this case, as a cheaper sight may rattle apart after several shots, or could be fragile and difficult to adjust.
More sophisticated sights have micro-adjustable parts, better build quality and superior materials. Pick something that is robust and reliable, as this piece of kit will stay with you for some time.
Button and Rest
Rests are available in plastic, fixed or magnetic varieties. A metal rest will be sturdier and will not require replacement. They are difficult to get used to for beginners but are an alternative to a plastic rest.
Some of the best scores in the world were shot with fixed plastic rests.
The button is essentially a spring that pushes the arrow away from the riser as it flies from the bow. It allows for precise adjustments and tuning of your arrows and is paired with the rest to optimise your shooting. There are some exceptionally good-value buttons on the market.
Choosing these bits of kit come down to personal preference and budget. There is a huge range of archery goods catering to archers of all levels and all styles, so if you’re uncertain about whether a piece of equipment – or its price – is suitable, ask!
Complete an introduction to archery course with a local club or range before purchasing equipment. World Archery highly recommends taking the advice of club members and coaches.
How to cite the article; suggest additional literature
Laser microscopy (or laser scanning microscopy) is a class of techniques for generating microscopic images of some sample by raster scanning it with a diffraction-limited laser beam.
Scanning may be achieved by moving either the laser beam or the sample.
Typically, the laser beam excites fluorescence in its focus, and the intensity of that fluorescence light is recorded for each point in the sample (→ fluorescence microscopy
From these data, images can be produced on a computer, and of course they can be stored in electronic form.
Numerical methods can be applied to process the images, e.g. to enhance the contrast.
This geometry suppresses the influence of light coming from other regions in the sample, e.g. from before or after the focus, because such light can not efficiently pass through the pinhole.
Scanline Crash Course
Scanlines are analog video catnip. The black lines cutting through an 8- or 16-bit game’s image help soften the distinct pixels of low resolution graphics, but they’ve also defined a visual style that millions of people associate with 2D video games. They are equal parts functional and nostalgic and one of the most recognizable elements of older games.
But calling them scanlines is a bit of a misnomer.
CRT Electron Gun, courtesy Flickr user 3dking via Creative Commons
Why? Let’s start with how a CRT TV or monitor works. In a CRT, three electron guns, or emitters, fire a beam of electrons at the back of the glass screen. The guns are controlled by magnetic deflection, and the beam they fire moves horizontally from the left side of the screen to the right to light up a single line of phosphors, which create colors. Those are the real scanlines–each line that makes up the picture is literally created as the electron gun scans horizontally back and forth.
The black lines colloquially referred to as scanlines are actually lines where no image was drawn.
The black lines colloquially referred to as scanlines are actually lines where no image was drawn–the electron gun has skipped that line and moved down to the next to continue drawing the raster scan.
So why are those empty voids what we think of when we think of scanlines? Probably because they stand out so prominently. After all, the movies and television programs we watched on CRTs had no such black lines. Movies and broadcast television in the US were displayed at 480i, the NTSC standard, meaning there were 480 interlaced scanlines (even lines drawn first, followed by odd lines) refreshed 30 times per second.
That’s not how game consoles work. Instead, they output a mere 240 lines, leaving those iconic blank spaces in between.
Photo courtesy Flickr user artemiourbina via Creative Commons “Older consoles manipulate the NTSC timing to force the lines drawn on screen to overlap, rather than alternate,” writes Daniel Corban, who, like Fudoh, is self-taught in the intricacies of video hardware. “This is where the term ‘double strike’ would originate; the lines are literally being repeatedly drawn on the same physical area of the tube. This is also what creates scanlines. On a digital display, the signal is simply handled as a 240-line progressive signal, hence ‘240p.’ “
Corban and Fudoh both own hardware expressly for the purpose of taking those 240p video signals and displaying them at the highest possible quality (another bit of terminology to note: 240p is also referred to as 15kHz, because the electron gun in a CRT scans across the screen horizontally a total of 15750 times per second).
There’s a ton more to know about scanlines, of course, and you can find a wealth of information on Fudoh’s Scanlines Demystified page. But let’s move on to another important area before we get to the holy grail of CRTs: understanding RGB signals and some of the key differences between CRTs and modern LCD displays.
Photo via supergaijinultragamer
RGB signals come in a variety of connector formats, and here European hardware enthusiasts have a major advantage. The SCART connector typically used on old consoles in Europe outputs RGB, making those consoles far easier to hook up to quality displays than the US counterparts. The original US Super Nintendo model can still output RGB and S-Video signals, however, using the appropriate Nintendo MultiAV connector cable.
The original US Super Nintendo model can still output RGB and S-Video signals using the right MultiAV connector cable.
The revised SNES-10model unfortunately dropped RGB and S-Video support, but RGB is relatively easy to restore with a system mod and the SNES-10puts out even better image quality than the older Super Nintendo.
Modding the NES for RGB output is far more expensive and complicated. Website Retro RGB has a great page devoted to how exactly to get RGB video out of every console. Thankfully, the Sega Genesis, Saturn, Dreamcast, and PlayStation put out RGB with no modding required.
The “purity” of a video signal can also be a big issue when hooking up consoles, and some displays will be more finicky than others about the signal they accept. This is why some consoles may need to be passed through another device, like the Sync Strike, to “clean” or filter the signal. Composite outputs a notoriously messy signal, which can result in colors bleeding into each other. Since RGB separates red, green, and blue, that’s not a problem, but properly syncing the colors is essential.
Photo credit: Flickr user commandertim via Creative Commons
With a retro game console outputting pure RGB video at 240p, there’s one major technical hurdle left to clear: choosing a CRT for retro gaming, or playing on a modern fixed-pixel (LCD, OLED or plasma) display.
And when it comes to CRTs, the Sony BVM-20F1U may be the best monitor ever made.
The Sony BVM-20F1U
Because the monitor was designed for use in broadcast production, it’s far more tuneable than the average television. “Geometry, adjustment possibilities, color reproduction, that’s where the Sony BVMs are top of the line and the best you can buy,” writes Fudoh.
Geometry concerns come from the way the electron beams are deflected inside the TV or monitor. Distortion tends to pop up around the edges, but improperly configured geometry can affect other parts of the screen as well. Convergence refers to how closely aligned the three color electron guns are in the CRT; the better the convergence, the less color bleed you see.
Photo via fotolife user kei-go
Among the 40-odd image processors reviewed on Fudoh’s site is the XRGB-Mini Framemeister. He calls it the king of 240p processing. Fudoh and other hardware enthusiasts even built a wiki for the XRGB-Mini to help new users.
Prior to the Mini, Micomsoft released a slightly more versatile but considerably more finicky processor called the XRGB-Its menus were naturally in Japanese until Fudoh and the members of the shmups forums helped Micomsoft release an English firmware patch. The Mini offers English support out of the box.
The Mini lacks the variety of inputs of some other image processors, but makes up for that shortcoming in quality and straightforward usability. Fudoh practically gushes in his review: “The Framemeister truly shines with all 240p signals I’ve thrown at it so far. 240p signals are recognized on all analogue inputs. No deinterlacing is applied….Without any doubt, the Framemeister takes the top position for any 240p processing devices. By using different output resolutions (480p, 720p or 1080p) you can choose different sharpness levels. On 1080p the processing looks absolutely razorsharp. With the right scaling options it looks just as nice as on the XRGB-(in B0 mode). As long as the scanlines are rendered the way they are in 1080p, 720p is my favorite output resolution. It’s not as razorsharp as 1080p (because of the TV’s additional scaling), but it looks at least as good as the XRGB-in Bmode. With 480p output the picture’s still very nice, though a bit softer than the XRGB-3’s 480p output – more like what classic Faroudja linedoublers would deliver.”
Race bikes, like the Vantage Comp get a bit of a bad wrap as being twitchy, or fast-handling – which is great when you’re jostling for position in a race, but not the best when you’re not – which for most people is pretty much all the time.
Endurance road bikes, like the Vantage Endurance, dial these characteristics back, with lower bottom brackets and slacker angles making for a more stable, predictable bike for everyday riding – whether your day’s riding is carving your way down a descent, weaving through peak-hour traffic, or holding a wheel in a beach-side bunch ride (or all of the above).
An Endurance road bike such as the Vantage Endurance has a longer headtube, which means that the handlebars are higher than on the more Race oriented Vantage Comp model. This puts less strain on the back, and also reduces the reach to the bar – meaning you’re able to ride further, in greater comfort.
This also makes for a friendlier introduction to road riding if you’re new to the activity, with a relatively neutral riding position that will have you hitting a new smiles-per-hour record in no time. Endurance road bikes also tend to be designed to have a little more ‘give’ in the frame, without sacrificing much efficiency, while little touches like gel bar tape add to the feeling of plushness.
On a Race bike like the Vantage Comp, spec decisions were made to optimise for speed meaning that the bike won’t be as comfortable but will take off and sprint quicker.
For a bike to be legal to race on, they need to fit into some pretty narrow technological boundaries imposed by the governing body of the sport (UCI). Controversially, one of these rules prohibits the use of disc brakes.
Endurance road bikes, however, are usually designed for the non-racing majority – so you get to enjoy better braking than the pros. Disc brakes aren’t affected by wet weather or dirty conditions – they’re predictable, powerful and offer finer control regardless of how dusty or damp your ride gets.
Because of the undeniable benefits of disc brakes on Road bikes, Reid have fitted our full Vantage range with discs across the board, from best-in-class brand TRP.
Front Frame Clip & Suspension
By far the most versatile system available, the Total Control Products replacement front frame clip is a direct-fit, high-performance suspension solution designed for 1964-1970 Mustangs. Based off of an existing double-A-arm suspension crossmember from parent company Chris Alston’s Chassisworks, the new Mustang system benefits from over 2years of development and manufacturing for this specific product. What this means to the buyer is a dizzying array of suspension and steering components to build specific configurations that cover slow-and-low street cruisers, lightweight drag race setups, potent street performers, and full-out road racing beasts—each available as left-hand or right-hand drive.
Further broadening the systems versatility, Total Control offers bolt-in engine mounts for all popular early- or late-model engines, including Ford Coyote and Chevy LS-Series.
Front Coilover Conversion
Track-proven performance yet well-mannered enough for daily street use, the front coilover conversion system from Total Control Products is the culmination of over 1years of production and refinement. Originally developed for classic Mustangs, the system utilizes the primary factory mounting locations, greatly simplifying installation and allowing easy adaptation to related Ford and Mercury models from 1960 through 1977.
With thousands of systems shipped and in use around the world, you can be assured of exceptional reliability and strength, exact-fit installation with bind-free operation, and phenomenal performance with effective and predictable suspension-tuning capabilities.
Be sure to check out the Total Control Products website for detailed installation video and a technical product data sheet.
Front Upper Arm Coilover
Enjoy the flexibility and benefits of a coilover suspension with a simple bolt-on shock conversion from Total Control Products. Billet-aluminum VariShocks are available in 16-position single-adjustable, 256-combination double-adjustable, or factory-valved versions, making the system suitable for such applications as daily driving, autocross, and drag racing. A versatile design was required to create a direct-replacement system for all Mustang-related Ford/Mercury models from 1960 to 197The billet lower crossbar fits the standard spring perch mount, while the top makes use of three height-specific mounts to allow stock and lowered ride heights for each vehicle. g-Bar Rear Suspension Conversions
Surprisingly easy to install with even more surprising performance, the series of g-Bar and g-Link suspensions from Total Control Products make quick work of transforming your 1964-197Mustangs or 1967-1970 Cougar into a modern handling machine. Engineered using laser-scanned vehicle data, g-Bar systems locate off factory mounting points to completely replace the OEM leaf springs and shocks. Either the stock 8- or 9-inch, or available direct-fit FABhousing can be used with bolt-on or welded brackets, enabling a broad budget and performance range.
Performance benefits include dramatically improved handling and steering response, more immediate acceleration, and higher horsepower and torque capability. Arguably the most versatile suspensions available, these sophisticated canted-four-bar suspensions feature adjustable ride height, suspension geometry, and shock valving along with a huge array of configuration options, including link bars, antiroll bars, and VariShock coilover or air-spring shocks.
Check out the Total Control Products website for full details.
Panhard Bar System
Total Control Products’ Panhard bar system for leaf-spring suspensions greatly improves vehicle handling response by providing superior control over side-to-side movement of the rearend housing. Installation and proper setup provides a noticeable change in vehicle handling with a more direct and connected feel during cornering. By minimizing the nervous tendencies found in leaf-spring suspensions, the TCP Panhard bar makes driving near the vehicle’s performance limit much easier. The Panhard bar component is part of a fully featured system with weld-on frame brackets integrating the antiroll bar mounts, and bolt-on leaf spring plates with built-in shock mounts and tie-down loops. Systems are available for 1964-197Mustangs and Cougars. Complete information is available online or by phone.
Backed by extensive engineering and manufacturing expertise, the Total Control Products rack-and-pinion systems are the premiere steering solution for 1964-1970 Mustang/Cougar and 1960-196Falcon/Comet/Ranchero. Maintaining correct steering geometry, full centerlink travel, and a high level of positive, direct steering without decreasing ground clearance or obstructing header clearance are features unique to Total Control’s patented design and not possible with OEM-based units. The modular design employs an assortment of specialized components that allow adaptation to specific configurations for manual or power assist, small-block or big-block engines, and left- or right-hand drive steering. Geared toward the do-it-yourselfer, most installations are 100-percent bolt-on and use existing factory mounting locations, with a few exceptions depending upon vehicle model and year. Rack-and-pinion kits ship complete with steering column mounts, shafts, and U-joints for OEM or aftermarket columns; tie-rods optional. An installation video, a data sheet, and price information are available online.
Rear Pushrod Suspension System
The rear pushrod suspension system from Total Control Products provides dominant road course handling performance for 1964-1970 Mustangs and Cougars in a sophisticated, self-contained package. Leaf springs attempt to handle rearend housing movement in six directions as well as torque reactions during acceleration and braking. The pushrod system replaces the leaf springs with VariShock™ coilovers (two- or four-way adjustable), tubular trailing arms, a watts link assembly, and a heavy-duty torque arm. This separation of housing control jobs into specialized components enables a superior level of positioning and geometry accuracy, with consistent and predictable handling in the most demanding of performance applications. Minimal welding is required for the cradle frame brackets and accompanying subframe connector system, with absolutely no cutting or custom fabrication needed to complete installation. Visit the Total Control Products website for the detailed 12-page product data sheet as well as available options and prices.
Stocker Star Shocks
Improve your handling with QA1’s front and rear bolt-in Stocker Star shocks, designed specifically for your 1964-197Mustang. These non-coilover shocks allow you to meet your performance goals with the level of adjustability that suits you. Dial in the perfect performance with the double-adjustable, single-adjustable, or drag “R” series valving options, or upgrade to a self-adjusting ride with the nonadjustable shocks. All QAaluminum shocks and struts are made in the USA and are 100 percent dyno tested and serialized, ensuring that they are of the highest quality. (952) 985-567qa1.net
Subframe Assembly and IFS
Upgrade your 1965-1970 Mustang steering to an MTF IFS and put in your new framerails, all in one easy-to-install unit. The MTF subframe assembly is made with 11-gauge 2xtubing and is a lot stronger than the factory framerails. Everything is completely welded and ready to go, including the engine cradle, sway bar brackets, and jack pad. MTF offers an easy-to-install long and short sub-frame versions.
The IFS part of the subframe assembly converts your classic front suspension from original equipment to a powerful, controlled ride. This solves clearance problems while giving you superior handling, power steering, and more stopping power. The kit includes extras like a power steering unit, 18-gauge shock tower covers, upgraded nickel U-joints, and a stainless double D-bar. This system uses standard shims for easier adjustment, and the shock mount bracket is welded in a fixed position so it won’t move on you later. This A-arm mount and cradle are made of 11-gauge American steel.
The bling of this system are the QAPro Coil adjustable shocks and coilovers. They not only look great but also offer the best shock technology out there. You will have more engine and header clearance with the shock tower covers that come with the kit, or upgrade to the MTF full inner fender panels.
It’s all in the details, and the brake line bracket is already welded on for you. All MTF parts are laser-cut for precision. MTF not only manufactures parts but restores Mustangs, providing the company insight into parts development and what works.
Available as an all-in-one unit, or you can purchase the subframe assembly and then the IFS later.
Cradle motor options: 289, 302, 351, 390, 428, Coyote 5.0, 4.6, 5.4, and 5.8.
Convert Your ’65-’70 Front Suspension
Convert your classic ’65-’70 Ford Mustang front suspension from original equipment to a powerful, controlled ride in an easy-to-install unit. This solves clearance problems while giving you superior handling, power steering, and more stopping power. The kit includes extras that other kits charge for, like a power steering unit, 18-gauge shock tower covers, upgraded nickel U-joints, and a stainless double D-bar. Developing these systems, MTF paid special attention to the A-arm mount. The system uses standard shims for easier adjustment, and the shock mount bracket is welded in a fixed position so it won’t move on you later. This A-arm mount and cradle are made of 11-gauge American-made steel. The bling of this system are the QAPro Coil adjustable shocks and coilovers. They not only look great but also offer the best shock technology out there. You gain engine and header clearance with the shock tower covers that come with the kit, or upgrade to the MTF full inner fender panels. The brake line bracket is already welded on for you. All parts are laser cut for precision. MTF not only manufactures parts but restores Mustangs too, providing the company excellent insight into parts development and what works.
The Aluma-Frame is an aluminum front suspension system for 1961/2-1970 Mustangs. It features DSE’s unique suspension geometry with inches of suspension travel for the ultimate in ride and performance. The frame is a unique cast aluminum cradle and mounting components, resulting in a high strength-to-weight ratio and precise fitment. The frame comes complete with tubular upper and lower control arms, “Detroit Tuned” rack-and-pinion steering, a splined integrated-style antiroll bar, and DSE/JRi aluminum coilover shocks with “Detroit Tuned” valving available in fixed valve, single adjustable, double adjustable, or remote canister double adjustable versions.
The frame can fit up to P265/35R1tires on a 9-inch rim on early models and up to P295/35R1tires on a 10.5-inch rim on later models, and also comes with Detroit Speed’s own forged spindle and composite antiroll bar bushings.
Our 1964-1966, 1967-197Ford Mustang car suspension parts are the best on the market. 1964-7Ford Mustang, Shelby GT, Mach 1, Cobra cars really perform with our suspension components. If you own a 1964-197Mustang you will love our suspension kits. We have ball joints, centerlinks, coil springs, control arm shafts, front and rear shocks, bushings, front end suspension kits, idler arms, leaf springs, Mustang II suspension, rear end components, drop spindles, sway bars, tie-rod ends, tubular control arms, and air ride suspension.
Concours Under-Ride Traction Bars for ’64-’6Mustangs
Get improved acceleration and handling with new Scott Drake Performance Under-Ride Traction bars for ’64-’6Mustangs. These are reproductions of the traction bars originally installed on ’6Shelby GT350s by the factory to eliminate axlewrap and wheelhop. They feature authentic details to perfectly match the appearance of the originals. The heavy-wall tubular bars have cast ends with correct “M-1” markings. The unique three-bolt cast axle mount brackets have accurate “10-70” markings just like they did in 196The original bars were made from thin-wall tubing and are prone to bending. These new Scott Drake traction bars are made to handle more power with super-strong 0.187-wall tubing that is twice the thickness of the competition. Each kit is finished in a durable semigloss black powdercoating for a lasting show-quality appearance. Rubber bushings, alignment spacers, and zinc plated Grade hardware are included. Like all Scott Drake products, these are backed by the Scott Drake 100 percent satisfaction guarantee. Non-concours performance under-ride tractions bars also available. (Note: Welding required for installation.)
What to Look for in a Triathlon Bike
Triathlon bikes come in all shapes and sizes, and all price points. At the entry level, here are a few things we suggest you focus on to make sure you are getting the most value for your money.
Fit. Every good bike advisor will tell you that getting the right fit is the single most important factor in if you will enjoy your bike. The fit should be one that feels comfortable, but also allows you to transfer max power to the pedals. A high-end bike that stretches you out a bit too much, for example, will not ride nearly as well as a lesser bike that fits you. Note that different brands have different angles and builds, so a 56cm bike in one brand is not always identical to the same size in another brand.
Frame. One of the biggest determinants of triathlon bike pricing is the frame materials. Carbon Fiber costs more than Aluminum, which costs more than Steel. You really won’t see many
Carbon frames, like the one found on this Orca M30, have become a norm in the entire tri bike market lately. anything that spins. That means that your money should go into the wheels, cranks, chainrings, etc. Upgrading the braking and shifting system can come later.
First of all thanks for reading my article to the end! I hope you find my reviews listed here useful and that it allows you to make a proper comparison of what is best to fit your needs and budget. Don’t be afraid to try more than one product if your first pick doesn’t do the trick.
Most important, have fun and choose your Geometry Sets wisely! Good luck!
So, TOP3 of Geometry Sets
- №1 — Color Technik- 20 Pc Compass / Math Set with Swing Arm Protractor
- №2 — Mr. Pen- 3 Pc Large Triangular Ruler Set
- №3 — Maped Geometry Set