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Best Rulers 2018 – [Buyer’s Guide]

Last Updated December 1, 2018
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Billy JacobsHi, I’m Billy Jacobs. Let’s discuss this topic to help you select best rulers for 2018 and take your experience to a whole new level with aerators.

The reviews are compiled through a mix of expert opinion and real-world testing. What I would like you to remember as you browse my website is that I don’t work in the industry so the reviews I have are based on good old fashioned honesty.

Best Rulers of 2018

The best rulers will make your fairytale dreams come true! Before you spend your money on rulers, start by familiarizing yourself with the various types. We’ve narrowed down our options based on the customer feedback (read positive reviews), functionality, material and size. In other words, we’ve put all fundamentals into consideration to come up with a comprehensive list that suits various needs. Here, I will review 3 of the best rulers of 2018, and we will also discuss the things to consider when looking to purchase one. I hope you will make an informed decision after going through each of them.

Test Results and Ratings

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Total 4.8 4.5 4.3
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№1 – 16 Packs Wood Ruler 12 Inch 30 CM Student Rulers Wooden School Rulers Office Ruler Measuring Ruler

16 Packs Wood Ruler 12 Inch 30 CM Student Rulers Wooden School Rulers Office Ruler Measuring Ruler

Material: Made of good quality wood material, very tough and not easy to bend, with smooth surface, easy to use
Ruler with 2 Scales: these wood rulers have 1/16 inch standard (12 inches totally) and 30 cm metric scales, it is handy for you to choose one of the scale for using
I didn’t notice a single drawback yet

Why did this rulers win the first place?

The product is very strong. Its material is stable and doesn’t crack. I don’t know anything about other models from this brand, but I am fully satisfied with this product. I was completely satisfied with the price. Its counterparts in this price range are way worse. I really enjoy the design. It is compact, comfortable and reliable. And it looks amazing!












№2 – Outus 16 Pieces 12 Inch/ 30 cm Wooden Rulers Student Measuring Rulers Office School Wood Rulers

Outus 16 Pieces 12 Inch/ 30 cm Wooden Rulers Student Measuring Rulers Office School Wood Rulers

Good features: these measuring rulers are not easy to break with a long lifetime, and their scales are clearly marked for your easy reading and measurement
Durable rulers: these wood rulers adopt good quality wooden material with smooth surface; And the double bevel design makes it easier to read the scale clearly and accurately
Heavy and big.
A little more expensive than other brands on the market.

Why did this rulers come in second place?

Seems that the material is good. It has a very beautiful color but I don’t really like the texture. I really liked it. It is amazing in every aspect. It did even exceed my expectations for a bit, considering the affordable price. This is a pretty decent product that perfectly fitted the interior of our office. I recommend you to consider buying this model, it definitely worth its money.












№3 – BAZIC Jeweltones Color Ruler

BAZIC Jeweltones Color Ruler

BAZIC JEWELTONES COLOR RULERS. Each pack of 12 inch color rulers come with four (4) different colors: blue, green, orange, and purple. With 1/16” and metric scales and holes for three-ring binders, each ruler is crafted for functionality
CRAFTED FOR CRAFTS. Our Bazic rulers are suitable for all craft and school related. Perfect for school projects for the young ones, each ruler is durable and made for long lasting use.
It is on the expensive side, but in the long run, it can save you a ton of money..
Longevity is in question.

Why did this rulers take third place?

I liked the design. We’ve been using it for 2 months and it still looks like brand new. It doesn’t squeaks nor bents. Looks great in my apartment. A very convenient model. It is affordable and made of high-quality materials. It is inconvenient to use due to the size. I am going to get something different next time.












Rulers Buyer’s Guide

If you keep the before points in mind, you can easily go out to the market and buy rulers, right? No!

Menlo Systems GmbH

The Menlo Systems Optical Frequency Comb technology is regarded as a breakthrough technology for measurements with highest accuracy. Based on Menlo patented frequency comb technology and figure 9® patented laser technology we offer a full product line from the SmartComb to the ultra-low noise Optical Frequency Comb FC1500-ULN. All PM fiber design and the comb software for automation are key elements for long-term, reliable operation. Lowest phase noise, stable supercontinuum and turn-key operation make the Menlo Optical Frequency Comb solutions unique.

See us at Photonics West in San Francisco, Jan 2– Feb. 1, 201(booth 708), DPG SAMOP 201in Erlangen, March 05–0and DPG SKM 201in Berlin, March 11–16!

Laser Quantum

The taccor comb consists of a 1 GHz turn-key Ti:sapphire laser with a matched dispersion compensation module, supercontinuum generation and ultra-stable f-to-2f interferometer. It provides an electrical output signal at the carrier-envelope offset (CEO) frequency with at least 40 dB signal-to-noise ratio in 100 kHz bandwidth. The supercontinuum generation fibre coupling is stable for long periods.

Advice on Frequency Combs

Ask RP Photonics for advice on various aspects of frequency combs, e.g. their generation, their use in frequency metrology, measurement or simulations of their noise properties, comparison of different frequency comb sources, etc.

Definition: optical spectra consisting of equidistant lines

A frequency comb can be used as an optical ruler

If the comb frequencies are known, the frequency comb can be used e.g. to measure unknown frequencies by measuring beat notes, which reveal the difference in frequency between the unknown frequency and the comb frequencies.

For performing such measurements in a wide frequency range, a large overall bandwidth of the frequency comb is needed.

Early attempts to produce broadband frequency combs were based on strongly driven electro-optic modulators, which can impose dozens of sidebands on a single-frequency input beam from a single-frequency continuous-wave laser.

It was then found that this process could be made more efficient (for obtaining more comb lines) by placing the modulator in a resonant cavity, particularly when the intracavity dispersion was minimized.

Further improvements were based on parametric amplification.

Such devices acquired an increasing similarity to mode-locked lasers for ultrashort pulse generation, and in fact it was then realized that a femtosecond mode-locked laser can actually be used very well for generating very broadband frequency combs: the optical spectrum of a periodic pulse train, as generated in a mode-locked laser, consists of discrete lines with an exactly constant spacing which equals the pulse repetition frequency.

If the pulse duration gets far below 1 ps, the optical spectrum becomes very wide, leading to a very broad frequency comb.

Using strong nonlinearities outside the laser resonator, one can further broaden the comb.

Note that the generation of a frequency comb requires that the periodicity applies not only to the pulse envelopes, but to the whole electric field of the pulses, including their optical phase, apart from a constant phase slip as to be discussed in the following.

In other words, coherence between the pulses is required.

Typically, pulses from mode-locked lasers exhibit a very high degree of mutual coherence, with random phase changes evolving only during many resonator round-trips.

The effects of residual noise on the comb is discussed further below.

Figure 1

Frequency comb (in red) of a mode-locked laser, with an exaggerated mode spacing of 25 THz (more realistic would be e.g. 1 GHz). The extrapolation of the mode frequencies towards lower values (thin black lines) shows that the so-called carrier–envelope offset frequency, which can be interpreted as an offset of the whole frequency comb, is 10 THz. The blue line indicates an unknown optical frequency in a beat measurement with the comb. The horizontal black lines indicate the two lowest beat frequencies.

Figure 2

Electric field (in blue) of laser pulses with a 5-fs duration and a variable CEO phase. This phase changes by π/from one pulse to the next one, corresponding to a CEO frequency which is one-quarter of the pulse repetition rate.

If the pulse train were perfectly periodic – not only concerning the intensity versus time but also with respect to the electric field –, all the frequencies of the lines in the spectrum would be integer multiples (harmonics) of the pulse repetition rate.

In most cases, however, intracavity dispersion and nonlinearities cause a slip of the carrier–envelope offset (CEO) from pulse to pulse, i.e., the oscillations of the electric field are constantly shifted with respect to the pulse envelope (Figure 2). are known, all frequencies of the comb are also known.

In that case, any optical frequency within the range of the frequency comb can be determined by recording a beat note between the unknown frequency and the comb.

The lowest beat frequency is the distance from the unknown frequency to the nearest line of the comb (see Figure 1).

An approximate frequency measurement (e.g. with a wavemeter) can be used to determine from which line the detected beat note originates.

It is then possible to find out whether the unknown frequency is above or below the comb line frequency, e.g. by observing the changes in beat frequency when tuning the unknown frequency or the comb position. is significantly more difficult.

It can be detected e.g. via an interferometric f−2f (Modified methods, using e.g. a 2f−3f self-referencing scheme, involve a beat note between different harmonics of the laser light.)

Such broad spectra can be achieved e.g. with supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers, if the laser output itself does not have sufficient bandwidth.

Figure 3

Principle of the common f-to-2f self-referencing scheme.

The low-frequency part of the spectrum is frequency-doubled, generating a second frequency comb with twice the CEO frequency. A beat note with the original comb reveals the CEO frequency.

Note that not all applications of frequency combs require the measurement of the CEO frequency.

CEO Stabilization

For some applications, the CEO frequency is stabilized with a feedback system, using an error signal e.g. from an f−2f interferometer.

The CEO frequency may be fixed at zero or at any given value, or at a certain fraction of the pulse repetition rate.

The weaker form of CEO stabilization means that the excursions of the CEO frequency are limited, but the CEO phase may still drift away.

Here, the uncertainty in the CEO phase should be well below 1 rad.

Note that even with a stabilization based on feedback from the error signal obtained with an f−2f

A totally different way of obtaining a CEO-stabilized frequency comb is to do difference frequency generation of different parts of the comb spectrum.

In that case, the nonlinear mixing product has a zero CEO frequency.

When CEO-stabilized pulses are sent through a high-gain amplifier, e.g. a regenerative amplifier in a CPA setup, the CEO phase stability may be lost in the amplifier.

Note that even a free-running (i.e. not CEO-stabilized) frequency comb can be used for ultraprecise measurements, e.g. in an optical clockwork.

This correction may be performed either with purely electronic means or on a computer.

The principle of a free-running transfer oscillator has two basic advantages: it does not require CEO stabilization, and it works up to very high noise frequencies beyond the bandwidth of a feedback system.

Noise in Frequency Combs

The issue of noise in the lines of a frequency comb is complex and interesting.

Different noise sources, such as mirror vibrations, thermal drifts, pump intensity noise and quantum noise, cause different and partly correlated combinations of noise of the pulse repetition rate and the carrier–envelope offset frequency.

In addition, there is some level of noise in all lines of a frequency comb which is not correlated.

For example, resonator length changes have hardly any impact on the CEO frequency but influence the pulse repetition rate, i.e. the line spacing. ν = 0 while someone is pulling the other end.

There is a so-called fixed point near ν = 0.

For thermal drifts, the position of the fixed point may be totally different; in a fiber laser, for example, it can be located well above the optical frequencies of the comb.

Phase changes which are related to intensity changes via the Kerr effect are associated with yet another fixed point.

To some extent, the rubber band model can be applied also to noise in a more general context.

In particular, quantum noise (originating e.g. from spontaneous emission in the gain medium) acting in a laser with relatively long pulses (not few-cycle pulses) causes phase changes of the lines which can be approximately described by a fixed point near the optical center frequency of the spectrum, although there is some additional noise not described by this fixed point.

Phase changes corresponding to the mentioned fixed point correspond to timing jitter, but not of the same kind as can be caused by cavity length fluctuations, because the fixed points are at very different locations in the spectrum.

Another important theoretical finding is that the quantum-limited CEO noise of mode-locked lasers with relatively long pulses is larger than from a laser with few-cycle pulses but otherwise similar parameters.

Indeed, there is substantial experimental evidence for significantly stronger noise from fiber lasers as compared with titanium–sapphire lasers, which generate shorter pulses.

However, there is also a significant impact of pump noise on fiber lasers.

In addition, further spectral broadening of a fiber laser output in a photonic crystal fiber can introduce extra noise.

Concerning the description of noise in a frequency comb, there are some caveats related to the notion of CEO noise.

The clearest and most rigorous approach considers the noise in all lines of the spectrum as the fundamental phenomenon.

Note that there is an article concerning noise in ultrashort pulses in the Photonics Spotlight.

Applications of Frequency Combs in Metrology and Other Areas

As shown above, frequency combs can be used for the measurement of absolute optical frequencies.

More precisely, this means that optical frequencies are related to the microwave frequency e.g. from a cesium clock.

In other words, a frequency comb can serve as an optical clockwork.

The first self-referenced frequency combs for metrology were generated with Ti:sapphire lasers.

In most cases, their output spectra are very broad but not yet octave-spanning, as required for detecting the CEO frequency with the usual f–2f self-referencing scheme.

Additional spectral broadening in a photonic crystal fiber is then used.

Initially, there was a concern that this method would not preserve the coherence and thus the comb structure, but it was found that the comb structure is usually well preserved, even though noise added in the spectral broadening processes is still a subject of investigation.

More recently, erbium-doped fiber lasers have also been used in conjunction with a photonic crystal fiber or a highly nonlinear dispersion-flattened fiber for spectral broadening.

Fiber sources have the potential for a more practical, robust and compact setup, as required for real-world applications.

However, titanium–sapphire-based systems usually exhibit better noise performance (see above).

The influence of quantum noise on the carrier–envelope offset is fundamentally stronger for pulses with longer durations, which most fiber lasers generate.

For generating frequency combs with very large frequency spacings of many gigahertz, one can use micro-resonators, having a correspondingly short round-trip time.

The obtained comb lines are usually not mutually coherent.

This mode-locking regime requires careful tuning of the pump laser.

Frequency comb laser sources are commercially available from different sources and are beginning to be widely used for metrology purposes.

As high-precision time measurements are becoming technologically more and more important – consider the GPS system and the European Galileo project as examples – and other new applications also appear to be very advantageous, it is to be expected that frequency combs will maintain high technological importance.

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Front Page  Tips & Resources  Buying Guide   Beyond the Basics: Specialty Rulers To Make Your Sewing Faster & More Accurate

Beyond the Basics: Specialty Rulers To Make Your Sewing Faster & More Accurate

All The Other Shapes

Rulers come in all kinds of shapes and sizes, depending on what you’ll be using them for. There are classic ruler shapes (long and narrow), big rectangles, squares, triangles, L-shaped, hexagons, scallops, even some with a lip that slides along the edge of your cutting mat.

A lot of specialty rulers have been designed for quilters and are very useful for making different size squares. Quilters are always looking for ways to cut hours off the time it takes to finish a quilt. Since they have to make dozens and dozens… and dozens of very accurate squares or diamonds or triangles, these clear rulers and rotary cutters have been a big step forward. You just line up the grid lines on the ruler to the size of square you want from your fabric and in two zips of the rotary cutter you’re done. The square rulers come in standard quilt square sizes (such as 6½”, 6″ and 4″) but you should have one (or two or three) even if you never plan to quilt. Because, come to think of it, there are an awful lot of squares in home décor sewing.

Once you start using see-through, non-slip rulers, you’ll discover how having half a dozen or more on hand isn’t overkill at all. I’m goin’ shopping!

Design Trifecta 360 Knife Block

Admittedly expensive, this handsome block certainly seemed to live up to its billing as “the last knife block you ever have to buy.” The heaviest model in our testing, this block was ultrastable, and its durable bamboo exterior was a breeze to clean. Well-placed medium-strength magnets made it easy to attach all our knives, and a rotating base gave us quick access to them. One tiny quibble: The blade of our 12-inch slicing knife stuck out a little.

Schmidt Brothers Downtown Block

This roomy block completely sheathed our entire winning knife set using just one of its two sides—and quite securely, thanks to long, medium-strength magnet bars. Heavy, with a grippy base, this block was very stable. An acrylic guard made this model extra-safe but also made it a little trickier to insert knives and to clean; the wood block itself showed some minor cosmetic scratching during use.

Schmidt Brothers Midtown Block

This smaller version of the Downtown Block secured all our knives nicely, though the blade of the slicing knife stuck out a bit. With a base lined with grippy material, this block was very stable. An acrylic guard afforded extra protection against contact with blades but made it a little harder to insert knives and to clean; the wood itself got a little scratched during use.

Finding the right fit

In general, you want your snowboard boots a bit tighter than your kicks. If your heel can lift out of the heel cup while walking around in them, they’re not tight enough. Then again, if your toes can’t wiggle, they’re too tight. Feet and ankles should feel snug and in place so that when you initiate a switch from edge to edge on your board, the board responds accordingly. Your big toe should just barely graze the toe cap.

Get to know your lacing system

Now that you have an understanding of what kind of fit and flex to go for, we can get into the different lacing systems, and offer a few snowboard boot suggestions in each of the lacing categories.

Most times, when you get to the mountain, you don’t want to waste time lacing up your boots or waiting for your friends to lace up theirs. You just want to run to the lift. If this sounds like you, you’re going to love Boa technology. Since 2001, snowboarders have been able to slip their feet into their snowboard boots, crank the dial, and get after it. Some boots utilize one cable to tighten each boot, while others have two to three boa system cables for more precise, zonal tightening. Boa bonus: You don’t have to take off your mittens or gloves in the dead of winter to tighten or get your boots on and off.

DC Judge

DC prides itself on developing products that take into account the feedback of its team. Well, the team did a great job with the Judge Boot, and it’s a top choice among the DC Team Riders. Its Dual Boa Closure System ensures a precision fit so you won’t break an ankle, and the Aerotech Ventilation System will make sure your feet can breathe through all that sweat as you hike up to the bowl.

Right in the middle on the flex scale, the Women’s Vans Aura Snowboarding boots has Vans custom focus Boa to target different zones. In fact, Vans was the first to start the trend and use Boa technology in their snowboard boots. Add that to a response liner and internal web harness, and you’ll have all the comfort and support you need as you adventure around the mountain for hours on end.


Similar to the popular ‘90s toy, the Bop It, some snowboard boots have a combination of technological advancements that you pull, twist, push (and bob it) to get that perfect fit. Below are some of the hybrid boots that’ll allow you to take advantage of all the best technology in one boot.

The Dreaded Gong Xing

Han Wudi was quite fond of punishing courtiers with castration, known as Gong Xing in Chinese. The most famous victim of this horrific punishment was the historian, Sima Qian.

Guangwudi of Eastern Han. Not usually included in lists of great Chinese emperors, which is unfair.

T-Square Rulers

For this post, I have put together a collection of the best T-Square rulers available for purchase.

I have included a range of lengths and materials so you are able to find exactly what you are looking for. The metal rulers will last longer and are more durable, but are more expensive than the plastic options. 


Dryzek, John, Dunleavy, Patrick, Theories of the Democratic State, First Edition (Basingstoke; Palgrave Macmillan, 2009)

Nichols, Mary P., “The Republic’s Two Alternatives: philosopher kings and Socrates”, Political Theory, vol. 12, no. 2, May 1984, Pages 252-274

Plato (Author), Lee, Desmond (Translator), Lane, Melissa (Introduction), The Republic, Second Edition with new Introduction (London; Penguin Classics, 2007)

Reeve, C.D.C, Plato, in Boucher, David, and Kelly, Paul, Political Thinkers: From Socrates to the Present, Second Edition( Oxford; Oxford University Press, 2009)

Reeve, C.D.C, Philosopher-Kings: The Argument of Plato’s “Republic”, First Edition (Cambridge, MA; Hackett Publishing Co. Inc., 2006)

Wolff, Jonathan, An Introduction to Political Philosophy, Second Edition (Oxford; Oxford University Press, USA, 2006)

From longarm to domestic

I’m focusing so much on the gripping material because I think this is the ultimate key to using longarm rulers on a home sewing machine. The ruler MUST stick firmly so you can focus more on guiding the quilt through the machine and less on keeping the ruler in place. If the ruler slips you’ll either be ripping out stitches, replacing your needle or searching for a Band-Aid!

Another thing to keep in mind is how new this technique is for home machines. I spoke to many manufacturers and only Westalee was intentionally designing rulers and feet for domestic machines. The Calico Kitten, HandiQuilter and DeLoa’s Quilt Shop all manufacture rulers for longarm machines, and Beverly Burton and Susan Jugerheld from HandiQuilter both recommended quilter’s speak to their dealers before using longarm rulers on their home machines.

Obviously, these are the early days of this technique, but the allure of easy quilting and effortless straight lines definitely makes ruler work appealing, no matter what type of machine you use. I quilted this small square with perfectly spaced curves in less than minutes with the Westalee low shank ruler set:

This type of quilting is time-consuming to mark and challenging to quilt perfectly on the lines. Using rulers feels very different, but with practice, it can obviously create stunning results. Definitely, keep your eyes peeled for new ruler shapes and ruler feet as this trend is clearly just getting started!

List of chapters






Khrushchev Nikita

While erratic in his behavior, sometimes coming off as a buffoon, he was a man of conviction in a system that was corrupt at its core. Khrushchev stood far above any Soviet leader in my opinion and deserves a spot in the list of best rulers of Russia.

Plato’s Ideal Ruler Today

Mark Tan shows us how to overcome our distrust and cynicism towards governments through the appointment of philosopher kings.

We live at a time when there is a general distrust of people towards their governments, perhaps because governments who should do what is for the common good instead reveal their ugly sides. Instead of seeking to secure the good of the people, motivated by public service commitments, governments can be perceived as doing nothing but consolidating power for themselves, motivated by self interest. This perception has led to a cynical attitude towards governments, and a scepticism concerning the sincerity of those in public office. The UK Parliamentary expenses scandal in 200was a clear example of the betrayal of the people’s trust. More recently, we saw the US government prying into the private internet correspondences of people all around the world. It is pertinent to note that both the UK and the USA are regarded as ‘model’ democratic nations. But this is a global issue, not limited to Western nations: Bo Xi Lai, who was a rising star in Chinese politics, has been tied with allegations of corruption, murder, espionage and sex.

To help us choose better leaders, we should draw upon the philosophical principles in Plato’s dialogues, primarily The Republic. The Republic stimulates ordinary citizens to reflect on the state and to make an appropriate reaction to it, so it can guide our deliberations and subsequent actions too. In particular, its principles could assist us in our choice of leaders and governments, which might in turn help us overcome our distrust and cynicism towards them.

Physical Education

For Plato, as for most Greeks, physical education was as important as cultivating the mind.This attitude inspired the later classical Roman saying, mens sana in corpore sano: ‘a healthy mind in a healthy body’. Physical education enhances general health and fitness, which is often a precondition of a sound mind. This is not an absolute law, but one would find it difficult to disagree that a healthy body is crucial to efficiently carry out the daily tasks of government. The people must be physically fit also to protect the citizens from internal and external threats. This is not limited to security personnel (the police, armed forces, etc) but applies to their leaders as well. He who would defend justice or the people must first have the power to defend himself.

I find a parallel here in Blaise Pascal’s Pensées, where he argues that “justice without might is helpless.” (Section V, 298). I am also reminded of George R.R. Martin’s Game of Thrones, where he writes, “the man who passes the sentence should swing the sword.” Officers adhere more willingly to the directives of a general like Julius Caesar or Napoleon Bonaparte who can fight on the field with his soldiers. Generally, the ability to relate to one’s subordinates is a distinctive leadership quality, indispensable in governing. To put it simply, political leaders must not be detached from the populace.


However, physical fitness is not a sufficient condition for good governance. Brute force, if unconstrained, is dangerous. As Plato says, our leaders should never be ‘savage masters’ – more like “wolves attacking the sheep than dogs looking after them” (Republic 416a-c). So physical power must be tempered with reason. Rational political control is the path of good governance.

For Plato training in mathematics was necessary because it enhances one’s logical and reasoning faculties. But in today’s era of an unending chain of financial crises – for instance, China’s economic slowdown, the financial problems and bailouts of EU nations, or the rising debt of the US Government – mathematical skills would be useful in and of themselves. It’s also true that a training in mathematics simultaneously enhances one’s other logical faculties; ergo, the understanding of mathematics allows one to handle more than just fiscal issues. In order to formulate effective policies and pass appropriate legislative measures generally, those in government must be able to sift through, prioritise and ascertain the truth of information from multiple sources, for example think-tanks, research institutes, consultants or political lobbyists. To give an example of the complexity of governance: on one hand, austerity measures may cut spending but create additional unemployment problems; on the other hand, increased spending which may help kickstart the economy, may also increase government debt. Only leaders who understand the delicate balances involved can have the capacity to subsequently render these problems manageable. Logic allows one to perceive propositions with clarity. The development of the logical faculty thus enables leaders to better analytically unpack the myriad problems facing governments.

Proceeding to the last discipline required for a philosopher king, the requirement of a training in music is consistent with Plato’s association of justice with harmonious order (Republic 434c). Music teaches us the harmony of sounds: the Christian Platonist St Augustine understood that harmony applies to good political relationships as well. In his De Musica of the fifth century AD he uses music as a metaphor for cosmic order.

The coordination of sounds in music also illustrates the delicate coordination required of political idealism, where the state exists to work towards the common good. The formation of a cohesive society involves the prioritisation of social and economic issues across various interest groups, as well as the efficient utilisation of available resources. Harmonising these needs is not unlike the process of composing a musical piece.

Furthermore, a good musical composition adheres to certain rational principles. Similarly, good governance would involve the utilisation of the self-evidently worthwhile rational principle of ‘practical reasonableness’. Practical reasonableness, as John Finnis lays out in his Natural Law and Natural Rights (1980), would require the state to have a rational plan for the community, to be committed to that plan, and to act in a non-discriminatory manner towards all in the community (Chapter V).

This sort of idealism is not in any way naïve, nor ignorant of Realpolitik, where governments do only what is practical or expedient, rendering what is moral irrelevant or secondary. Realpolitik has contributed to the cynicism I talked about. Political idealism, on the contrary, provides an opposing force to such cynicism.

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party. He was chancellor of Germany from 193to 194and leader of Nazi Germany from 193to 194Hitler was at the centre of World War II in Europe. Hitler was a decorated veteran of World War I.

Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan born in Temujin likely in year of 116and he died in 1August 122He was the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his demise. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia.

Tiglath-pileser I

Tiglath-pileser I was an early Assyrian king who began his reign in about 1100 BC. He mounted several successful military campaigns against the Babylonians, Syrians, and many others.

Few could stand in the way of the Assyrian expansion. After toppling the Babylonian Empire, the Assyrians conquered the Israelites, the Phoenicians, and even parts of the mighty Egyptian Empire.

The Assyrian ruler also claimed great expertise as a hunter who on one expedition killed over 900 lions and captured several elephants alive.

In the city of Asshur he kept a hunting park in which to prey on animals. At Nineveh, he started a botanical garden in which he planted trees and fauna gathered during his military campaigns.

British Museum, Assyrian collections (Room 10, British Museum) (

The right tools

Among the new drawing tools Adobe introduced for Illustrator CC 201is Curvature, which allows artists to create smooth curves by tapping once, or corner points and straight lines with two taps instead. (The same trick can also be used on Windows or Mac desktop systems.)

Likewise, the new Join tool makes it insanely easy to connect paths that failed to intersect or overlap while drawing. In addition to adding the necessary connections, Join is also capable of removing overlapping segments as well – tasks that previously required more advanced skills on the desktop.

A few caveats

Unfortunately, the Touch Workspace experience hasn’t been totally streamlined with this initial release. For starters, opening an existing Illustrator document throws the user straight back into the Desktop’s trusty old open and save dialog box, rather than the more Modern (formerly “Metro”) environment found on Windows 8.

Other niceties like Save As are also missing from Illustrator CC’s Touch Workspace mode, so artists will need to temporarily switch back to the classic user interface whenever they want to save alternate versions of the currently open document.

Despite these few UI nitpicks, Touch Workspace makes for a compelling addition to Adobe Creative Cloud, and makes Surface Pro a must-have for anyone who spends time drawing or painting with Illustrator CC. (For the moment, Photoshop CC users have less reason to cheer, but the additional features do make the application easier to use while disengaged from a keyboard and mouse.)

For New or Beginner Riders

Soft and forgiving, these boots are ideal for new and aspiring snowboarders who need easy flexibility while learning how to turn. Conversely, they’re supportive in the ankles and calves, where your developing muscles need it the most. Some of these boots also utilize quick lacing technologies to make it easier to get them on and off. We recommend the 

Speed Zone™ Lacing

If you like the old school style of laces but want something faster and more efficient, try out the Speed Zone™ system. Speed Zone™ utilizes two pull-laces that allow you to loosen and tighten the upper and lower zones of your boot independently of each other so you can get a more customized fit.

Traditional Lacing

If you prefer to lace up your own boots the good ol’ fashioned way, traditional laces are the way to go. They give you full freedom to lace up however you like, say, if you prefer the tongue a little looser and the lower zone snug and tight. The no-BS approach to traditional laces also puts these boots in a more affordable category, if budget is a factor.

Get Fitted

So you’ve determined a few boot models that fit your needs. Now it’s important to get fitted properly before trying them on. Your street shoe size isn’t always the same as your snowboard boot size, so don’t assume you’ll be slipping your feet into the same size as your gym shoes. Have a salesperson measure your feet and recommend a size to try.

Once you’ve got a few pairs from the shelves, pull on a pair of real snowboard socks. (Read: no cotton!) A single pair of over-the-calf wool or synthetic blend socks are the best for wicking away moisture and keeping your feet dry and warm when snowboarding.

With your foot in the boot, cinch up the inner lining so it’s snug around your whole foot. Then start working on the outer laces, again ensuring that the laces are snug, but not overly tight, all the way down your foot. If you’re new to riding, have a salesperson help you so you can gauge what that feels like.

Flex Test

It’s not always immediately obvious if the boot fits your foot or not. Once you’ve got a pair laced up, give ‘em a flex test by lunging around the store, rocking back and forth from heels to toes and spending 5-minutes going through a mental checklist of requirements. (No need to feel weird doing a set of walking lunges through the snowboard aisle—it’s totally normal.)

First off, your toes should barely touch the end of the boots. If they’re curled in the toe box or swimming around, ask to try on a different size. Additionally, if you feel anything uncomfortable right off the bat—like pressure points or too narrow of a width—chances are, they’ll only bother you even more on the hill. So again, ask to try a different style or size until you find one that feels good while standing normally.

Take into consideration that your boots will pack out and soften up the more you ride.

Once you’ve got a pair of boots that fit well on first impression, start busting out some more lunges. If your heel lifts up, try the simplest solution first: tighten the laces and try again. But if your ankles and heels are still swimming around, consider trying a different style or size. Take note of how they flex. Are they too stiff? Too soft? Remember that different boots are built for different riding styles, so choose a pair that fits your dominant riding style. Also know that your boots will pack out and soften up the more times you ride, so take that into consideration.

Customize It

Orthotics might sound like a remedy for geriatric patients, but adding a footbed to your boot liner can make a huge difference in all-day comfort, especially if you need arch support. And let’s face it, most of us actually do. Whether you’ve got flat feet or high arches, finding the right level of support will help distribute an even pressure across your whole foot. That equates to more spring in your step. Or, snowboard-specific, more ollie in your pop.

The pieces of a chain

A bicycle chain is made up of lots of individual pieces. These are the pin, outer plates, inner plates, bushing and roller. On most modern chains, the bushing is integrated with the inner plate and holds in the circular roller.

Each chain link is joined onto the next, alternating between outer plate and inner plate. A whole chain link is commonly thought as one segment of outer and inner plate together.

A chain has a 0.5in (12.7mm) spacing between pins. This is the chain ‘pitch’ and is an industry standard on multi-speed bikes. (Note: in this article we’re only referring to standard ‘derailleur’ type multi-speed bicycle chains.)

Doug Mahoney

After dropping, extending, and scrubbing the blades of 1different tape measures with 60-grit sandpaper, we found that the best one is the classic 25-foot Stanley PowerLock Tape Measure. It’s our pick after 4hours of research and three annual updates to this guide, including another 1hours of work this year testing against new tools. That’s because the PowerLock delivers the best basic combination of durability, ease of use, and accuracy—and all for a very low price. In fact, the PowerLock is one of the least expensive tape measures that we’ve looked at.

How we picked

After reading what we could, talking to our experts, and taking years of experience using tape measures into account, we found that the most important features of a tape measure are blade durability, case durability, tang (the metal hook at the end of the tape) size, stand-out, and ease of locking lever. Accuracy is important too, but all of the tapes we looked at fell within an acceptable margin of error. Both Clement and DeBoer warned against tapes loaded with additional features like pencil sharpeners. Clement summed things up: “Go simple. Keep it clean.”

Pull Quote

DeBoer and Clement agreed that a tape measure that can stand out unsupported for 7-feet is more than enough for at-home use.

The stand-out of a tape is the distance that the blade can extend unsupported from the case and not collapse. In the industry it has become a bragging right to have the tape with the longest stand-out. The current champ appears to be the Stanley FatMax Xtreme which, according to Stanley, can be extended 1feet. This mega distance can be helpful on a jobsite, but it’s really unnecessary for the home. Both DeBoer and Clement agreed that a tape measure that can stand out unsupported for 7-feet is more than enough for at-home use. While DeBoer doesn’t advocate always going for the longest stand-out, he also uses stand-out as a quality marker. “If your tape breaks downward at just 5-feet then it’s likely going to be a product that doesn’t last long in other areas as well.”





How to save up to 86%? Here is little trick.

You must visit the page of sales. Here is the link. If you don’t care about which brand is better, then you can choose the Rulers by the price and buy from the one who will offer the greatest discount.



Final Word

First of all thanks for reading my article to the end! I hope you find my reviews listed here useful and that it allows you to make a proper comparison of what is best to fit your needs and budget. Don’t be afraid to try more than one product if your first pick doesn’t do the trick.

Most important, have fun and choose your Rulers wisely! Good luck!

So, TOP3 of Rulers



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